Every woman wishes to have a bright and glow skin tone. So many people are worrying about their skin as it becomes dark day by day due to various factors. However, we should know some facts related to our skin’s structure and function. The external surface of the human body is entirely covered by the skin. The skin plays a major role as a protective barrier which helps prevent internal tissues from exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, trauma, temperature extremes, toxins, and bacteria. However, there are other important functions of the skin such as; sensory perception, thermoregulation, immunologic surveillance, and control of insensible fluid loss.
How is skin structured?
The skin is built of two layers, the epidermis, and dermis. They rest on a fatty subcutaneous layer, which is known as the panniculus adiposis. The epidermis is derived from surface ectoderm containing antigen-processing Langerhans cells of bone marrow origin, pressure-sensing Merkel cells of neural crest origin, and melanocytes of neural crest origin. The dermis is derived from mesoderm and contains elastic fibers, blood vessels, collagen, sensory structures, and fibroblasts.
Epidermis: The epidermis contains no blood vessels and is totally dependent on the underlying dermis for waste disposal and nutrient delivery via diffusion through the dermoepidermal junction. The epidermis is a squamous, stratified epithelium which consists of keratinocytes in progressive stages of differentiation from deeper layer to more superficial layers. The named layers of the epidermis include the stratum spinosum, stratum germinativum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum.
Dermis: The dermis is functioned as sustaining and supporting the epidermis. The dermis is a more complex structure and is composed of 2 layers, which are the deep reticular dermis and more superficial papillary dermis. Anyhow, the papillary dermis is thinner than epidermis and contains loose connective tissue consisting of capillaries, reticular fibers, elastic fibers, and some collagen. The reticular dermis is thicker and consists of dense connective tissue, which contains closely interlaced elastic fibers, larger blood vessels, and coarse bundles of collagen fibers which are arranged in layers parallel to the surface.
Dermoepidermal junction: The dermoepidermal junction is a basement membrane, which adheres the epidermis and the dermis together. It is composed of 2 layers, the lamina dense and lamina lucida. The lamina lucida is thinner, which lies beneath the basal layer of epidermal keratinocytes. The lamina densa is thicker and it is in direct contact with the underlying dermis. These structures are the target of immunologic injury in epidermolysis bullosa and bullous pemphigoid.
What are the factors that cause your skin damage?
Sun Exposure: The sun is the main cause of skin damage. The ultraviolet rays of the sun destroy elastin and collagen, which these two proteins help keep your skin looking smooth and plump. The ultraviolet rays of the sun can also affect melanocytes, which lead to changes in your skin’s pigmentation. The aging effects of the sun eventually appear on your skin as age spots, wrinkles, and possibly skin cancer. In order to avoid the skin damage that can be caused by the sun, you are advised to stay out of the sun during the middle of the day when the sun’s rays are strongest, and wearing protective clothing such as sunglasses and a hat,g and using a sunscreen, that helps you protect against both types of harsh ultraviolet rays, UVA and UVB with a sun protection factor of 30 or higher.
Irritants: chemicals in cosmetic products, laundry detergent, and cleaning products can also cause red, irritated skin and allergies in people who are susceptible. Bleaches and ammonia have a tendency to irritate your skin. These chemicals may cause you contact dermatitis, which is irritation and scaling, and sometimes even a chemical burn. It is noticed the people with more sensitive skin will experience more skin irritation than others. However, there are more than 3,000 substances in the environment which can cause allergies. The good way to protect your skin from those irritants or allergens is avoiding contact, either by wearing gloves when you do dishes or clean or by switching to less irritating products. Additionally, moisturizing your skin can also help. Anyhow, some people may need a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or antihistamine for treatment.
Free Radicals: they are the oxygen molecules, which are unstable with a single electron. In short, doctors think that ultraviolet light from the sun can contribute to skin damage and damaged DNA. Free radical is even a main factor in the development of skin cancer. In addition, they are the result of exposing to tobacco products or some other factors in the environment. Even though, some skin care products contain antioxidants such as vitamins E and vitamin C, which help to reduce the aging effects that free radicals have on your skin. Eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, which contain antioxidants, especially broccoli, carrots, berries, and spinach, is also good for healthy skin.
Smoking Cigarettes: as we have ever seen, the skin of a smoker is not as healthy as a nonsmoker’s skin. Cigarette also has a tendency for the smokers to wrinkle easily. Of course, smoking cigarettes make your blood vessel to constrict, or get narrower, which includes the vessels that nourish the outer layers of your skin. This means that when you smoke, your skin obtains less of the nutrients and oxygen that it needs to stay healthy, and that leads to wrinkles. Most importantly, smoking cigarettes cause elastic fibers in the skin to thicken, which means your skin will not snap back into shape as well and you will experience sagging.
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How to whiten your skin with natural remedies?
Lemon juice is very useful for your skin as it contains natural astringent properties which reduce sebum secretion and tighten skin pores. It bleaches the skin to help whiten the complexion with its natural acidic composition. Lemon juice helps new skin cell growth and creates a fair skin complexion as it is rich in anti-oxidants and vitamin C. You only dip a cotton ball in freshly squeezed lemon juice and directly apply it on your face. You can also rub a fresh cut lemon directly all over the affected area and let the juice stick to your skin. Sit it on for at least an hour and then wash your face with water. You can do this once daily. Of course, this is a very simple remedy which will certainly whiten your skin complexion and also prevents the development of scars on your face. However, you can also use lemon juice and turmeric powder mask. You just mix one teaspoon of turmeric powder and three teaspoons of lemon juice. You can apply this mixture on your skin and leave it on for at least half an hour. Wash it off with water. You can do this once daily to get the best result. Another method is that you can mix together one teaspoon each of powdered milk (you can also use yogurt), lemon juice, and honey. Apply it on your skin and sit it on for 15 to 30 minutes before washing it off. You can do this daily or every other day.
Yogurt has bleaching properties and it is rich in lactic acid which helps treat hyper-pigmented skin by suppressing the melanin production. Also, lactic acid has a gentle substance which is called alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) which function as an exfoliate agent that removes dead cells. This helps provide you a brighter skin tone. You just gently rub a suitable amount of plain yogurt on your skin and leave it on for a few minutes and then wash it off with water. However, you can also use yogurt and turmeric powder mask. You just mix one teaspoon of turmeric powder and three tablespoons of yogurt. You can apply this mixture on your skin and leave it on for at least half an hour. Wash it off with water. You can do this once daily to get the best result. Another method is that you can mix together one teaspoon each of yogurt(you can also use powdered milk), lemon juice, and honey. Apply it on your skin and sit it on for 15 to 30 minutes before washing it off. You can do this daily or every other day. This remedy will also help keep your skin supple and moisturized.
Honey helps lighten your skin while it also acts as a moisturizing agent. Dry skin is a general factor that leads to an uneven skin tone. Honey also has antibacterial properties that can help gradually fade acne scars and age spots. Apply pure honey to your face, sit it on for a few minutes and then wash it off with warm water. This is a simple remedy that will help remove your dead skin cells and your skin will appear fresher and brighter than ever. Do this once daily. Moreover, to make a skin-lightening mask, you just combine one teaspoon each of lemon juice and honey, one tablespoon of powdered milk, and one-half teaspoon of almond oil. Mix them well and apply it gently on the skin. Leave it on for 10 to15 minutes and then wash it off with cold water. Do this every other day.
Licorice extract is an Ayurvedic remedy that cures many skin ailments, scars, and even dark circles. It has an active compound which is called glabridin that helps inhibit the enzyme which causes skin darkness due to sun exposure. Plus, this active compound helps balances skin cells and decreases melanin production. Furthermore, licochalcone is an oil-controlling agent which is best for those who are suffering from the acne-prone or oily skin.
Orange is essential for skin care since it highly contains vitamin C. Plus, it functions as a bleaching agent to lighten up the skin tone. Intake regularly of either orange or its fresh juice will help improve your skin texture and its suppleness. You can use orange in two ways to lighten up your skin. Blend a pinch of powdered turmeric and two tablespoons of orange juice. Apply the mixture on your face and neck before going to bed. You can also apply it on your body. Wash it off after 20 to 30 minutes and repeat it daily. Another way is that you can grind orange peels which are dried into a powder. Mix a tablespoon of plain yogurt with a tablespoon of the powdered peels to make a paste. Apply this paste on your skin and sit it on for about 15 to 20 minutes. Rinse it off with warm water. This remedy will help lighten spots and other marks on your face.
Papaya is easily found and used in various beauty treatments. Plus, it can also be used to whiten your skin complexion. Papaya contains natural bleaching properties and the various nutrients in it that will help make your skin glow. General cleansing properties of papaya will cleanse the skin of impurities that could be leading it to darken. You can rub the inner part of the skin of a papaya on your face. Let it dry. Then wash your face with cold water and pat it dry. This will give your skin a nice glow. You can also mash a ripe papaya and blend it with one cup of freshly squeezed lemon juice. Apply the mixture all over your face and neck. Sit it on for at least 30 minutes and then wash it off with cold water. Do this at least once a week and see the result.
Turmeric is usually used to improve the skin complexion. It helps build up the kind of melanin content to maintain an even skin tone. In addition, it has antioxidant and antiseptic properties that are perfect for your skin’s overall health. You can mix turmeric powder and milk cream to make a thick paste. Apply the paste on your skin. Sit it dry and then wash it off with warm water. When followed regularly, this simple remedy is really effective for skin whitening.
Additional sources: WebMD, Mayo Clinic, Medical News Today