Because our health is really important than other things, it is necessary to live healthily. In recent, many people have been suffering from strokes due to lifestyle and lack of health controlling. Strokes have found on most people who are obesity, diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure) lack of exercise and physical activity. Anyway, stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to the brain which results in the death of brain cells. A stroke can contribute to a short-term or permanent handicap, so caring of post-stroke is useful for recovery.
What Are the Symptoms of a Stroke?
You may experience these symptoms when you have a stroke:
- Sudden dimness of vision, particularly in one eye.
- Sudden weakness or numbness in the face, leg, arm, or on one side of your body.
- Sudden loss of the balance, which possibly accompanied by nausea, vomiting, hiccups, fever, or trouble with swallowing.
- Brief loss of consciousness.
- A sudden and severe headache with no other cause followed rapidly by loss of consciousness; indications of a stroke due to bleeding.
- Abrupt loss of vision, strength, sensation, speech, coordination, or the ability to understand speech. These symptoms may also become worse over time.
- Sudden falls or unexplained dizziness.
What are the types of stroke?
There are a few types of stroke. They are the ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Anyhow, a stroke can lead to disability, handicap, and some other complications. Hence, it is important to have a healthy lifestyle. The kinds of stroke are as the following:
Ischemic strokes are more frequently occur than other types of stroke. Ischemic strokes happen when the arteries to your brain become blocked or narrowed, that cause the blood flow severely reduced (that is called ischemia). The most common types of ischemic strokes include:
Embolic stroke: embolic stroke befalls when a blood clot or other debris forms away from the brain (usually in the heart) and is swept through your bloodstream to lodge in narrower brain arteries and this type of blood clot is called an embolus.
Thrombotic stroke: thrombotic stroke happens when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one of the arteries, which supply blood to the brain. A clot may be formed by fatty deposits (plaque), which build up in arteries and lead to reduced blood flow (this is called atherosclerosis) or other artery problems.
Signs and symptoms of ischemic stroke
Patient presenting with alteration of consciousness or acute neurologic deficit is considered stroke. The evocative signs and symptoms of stroke are the following:
- Hemisensory deficits
- Sudden alteration of consciousness
- Abrupt onset of hemiparesis, monoparesis, or quadriparesis
- Monocular or binocular visual loss
- Visual field deficits
- Facial droop
Transient ischemic attack
A transient ischemic attack is a short period of symptoms similar to those a patient had a stroke. However, it is also known as a ministroke. A short-term decrease in blood supply to part of the brain contributes to transient ischemic attack. Frequently, it last less than five minutes. Just like an ischemic stroke, a transient ischemic attack or a ministroke befalls when a debris or clot interrupts blood flow to part of the brain. As the blockage is temporary, the transient ischemic attack will not leave lasting symptom. Furthermore, seeking emergency care is really important even if your symptoms seem to no more appear. Based only on your symptoms, it is impossible to tell if a patient is having a transient ischemic attack or a stroke.
A hemorrhagic stroke happens when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures or leaks. Additionally, the brain hemorrhages are caused by many problems that affect your blood vessels, which include uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure), weak spots in your blood vessel walls (it is known as aneurysms), overtreatment with anticoagulants. Hemorrhagic stroke is less common the ischemic stroke. However, the types of hemorrhagic stroke include:
Intracerebral hemorrhage: Surely, in the intracerebral hemorrhage, a blood vessel in the brain tears and spills into the brain tissue that stays surrounding, damaging brain cells. Moreover, the brain cells over the leak are deprived of blood and also damaged. Intracerebral hemorrhage may be caused by vascular malformations, hypertension (high blood pressure), and consumption of blood-thinning medications, trauma, and other conditions.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage: In the subarachnoid hemorrhage, an artery near or on the surface of your brain ruptures and spills into the space between the surface of the skull and the brain. This bleeding is frequently signaled by a sudden, severe headache. In common, subarachnoid hemorrhage is provoked by the bursting of an aneurysm. Moreover, the blood vessels in the brain may erratically narrow and widen after the hemorrhage, (vasospasm), this leads to brain cell damage by further limiting blood flow.
Focal neurologic deficits
The deficit depends on the area of the brain. If the dominant hemisphere is involved, a syndrome consisting may result:
- Right hemisensory loss
- Right hemiparesis
- Right visual field cut
- Left gaze preference
If the nondominant hemisphere is involved, a syndrome consisting of may result:
- Left hemisensory loss
- Left hemiparesis
- Left visual field cut
- Right gaze preference
What are the complications of a stroke?
Sometimes a stroke can lead to temporary or permanent disabilities. This depends on which part was affected and how long the brain lacks blood flow. Anyhow the complications may include:
Paralysis or absence of muscle movement: A patient may lose control of some muscles, or become paralyzed on one side of the body, such as those on one side of the face or one arm. Physical therapy may help you return to activities obstructed by paralysis, such as eating, dressing and walking.
Thinking difficulties or memory loss: Many patients who have had strokes may have some memory loss, while others may have difficulty making judgments, thinking, understanding concepts and reasoning.
Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) or talking (dysarthria): A stroke may cause you to have difficulty with language (aphasia), which includes understanding speech or speaking, writing or reading. You may also have less control over the way the muscles in your throat and mouth move so that this makes it difficult for you to talk clearly, eat or swallow. Therapy with a language and speech pathologist may help you.
Pain: patients who have had strokes may have pain, other strange sensations or numbness in some parts of their bodies that affected by stroke. For instance, you may develop an uncomfortable tingling sensation in the left arm if a stroke causes you to lose feeling in that arm. On the other hand, people also may be sensitive to temperature changes, particularly extreme cold after a stroke. This complication is known as central pain syndrome or central stroke pain. However, this condition commonly develops several weeks after a stroke, and it may improve over time. But there are few treatments since the pain is caused by a problem in the brain, rather than a physical injury.
Emotional problems: it is noticed the people who have had strokes may develop depression, or they may have difficulty in controlling their emotions.
Changes in self-care ability and behavior: People who have had strokes may become more impulsive or less social and more withdrawn. Therefore, they may need help with daily chores and grooming.
How to prevent a stroke?
However, there are two methods to prevent a stroke. The two types of stroke prevention are primary and secondary prevention.
Primary Prevention of Stroke
Primary prevention of stroke refers to the individual’s treatment without previous history of stroke. Plus, risk factors that are modifiable are the following:
- Hypertension: Hypertension is the most changeable risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage and stroke, and the risk of stroke progressively develops with increasing blood pressure, independent of other factors.
- Diabetes: Diabetes is estimated to increase the risk of ischemic stroke 1.8to nearly 6-fold, independent of other risk factors.
- Cigarette smoking: Cigarette smoking is correlated with an increased risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage and ischemic stroke, with risk for the former that approximately doubled by smoking and risk for the latter increased 2to 4-fold.
- Weight and body fat: Multivariate analyses controlling for risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and show a consistent, though weaker, the relationship between stroke risk and BMI, suggesting that the adiposity has effects that are mediated in part through these certain risk factors.
- Diet and activity: Several aspects of nutrition and diet can contribute to increase blood pressure that excess weight, excess alcohol consumption, decreased potassium intake, and increased sodium or salt intake. Though, physical inactivity is also related to an increased risk of stroke and other adverse effects, such as cardiovascular mortality and morbidity.
- Dyslipidemia: the elevation total cholesterol has been related to increased risk of ischemic stroke.
- Depression: Depression is recognized as a possible cause of stroke.
- Atrial fibrillation: therapy for primary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation is chosen depends on some factors that include the risk of bleeding with anticoagulation therapy, estimated stroke risk, and patient preference.
Secondary Prevention of Stroke
Secondary prevention attributes to the treatment of individuals that have had a transient ischemic attack or a stroke already. It can be summarized by the mnemonic A, B, C, D, E, as following:
A: Antiaggregant (aspirin, extended-release dipyridamole, clopidogrel, ticlopidine) and anticoagulants (warfarin)
B: Blood pressure; lowering medications
C: cholesterol-lowering medications, cessation of cigarette smoking, carotid revascularization
All in all, blood pressure control, smoking cessation, a low-fat diet (eg, Mediterranean diets or DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), diabetes control, regular exercise and weight loss should be encouraged.
What are the natural tips for stroke prevention?
Here are some diet tips for preventing a stroke that you can practice. These help you to naturally prevent suffering from a stroke by only have a healthy diet plan. By only eating some foods or vegetable, you can live free of stroke. Here are the natural tips:
Tomatoes contain lycopene, which is known as the antioxidant that gives them their red hue. A recent study has proved that men with the greatest blood levels of lycopene less likely to have any kind of stroke and have less risk to have an ischemic stroke, than men who have lowest lycopene levels. The highest amounts of lycopene are usually found in red products such as tomato puree and tomato paste. In addition, there are more good sources that include pink grapefruit, vegetable juice cocktail, watermelon, and guava.
Reduce salt intake
In some people, salt causes blood pressure increase. This is an important risk factor for stroke. Moreover, people who consume a lot of salts (more than 4,000 milligrams per day), independent of high blood pressure, have more than double the risk of ischemic stroke than those who consume less than 1,500 milligrams, or about 2/3 of a teaspoon daily.
Eat an apple daily
It is said that having an apple per day can avoid seeing the doctor. Apples and pears pack fiber and quercetin, an inflammation-fighting antioxidant. Other white foods to try: Bananas, chicory, cauliflower, cucumber, onions and garlic.
Drink coffee in moderate amount
Of course, moderate daily coffee consumption (1 to 3 cups) can really protect against ischemic stroke. Having six or more cups a day had no effect on stroke risk. By the way, if you know you have a brain aneurysm, you should avoid overload consumption because it could raise temporarily your blood pressure, which increases the risk that the weakened artery will tear.
Even though, a stroke can be naturally prevented depends on lifestyle management. You can prepare your daily schedule of exercise, some leisure or physical activities. Planning your diet also a major role in stroke prevention as this method can help you prevent the risk factors for stroke such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and overweight. On the other hand, you are recommended to see and consult the doctor regularly if you have some of the risk factors for stroke. Furthermore, people who have had a stroke should follow the prescription strictly and often check-up.